Proteins are often called “proteins” by abuse of language, they are a family grouping together proteins, amino acids and peptides. Amino acids are very small molecules combined in the form of peptides that are themselves combined to form proteins.
Characteristics of the protides:
- Family grouping amino acids, peptides and proteins
- There are foods rich in animal protein and foods rich in vegetable protein
- Essential to all living organisms
- Have an enzymatic, energetic and structural role
- A deficiency can be dramatic and must be treated quickly by diet and / or supplements.
Why consume foods rich in proteins?
Benefits and roles of the protides
By providing proteins to the body, it promotes the good production of many tissues of the body such as myosin, keratin or collagen.
Precursor of hormones and enzymes
Proteins enter the synthesis of many hormones and enzymes involved – among others – in digestion.
Maintenance of the Immune System
These are the membrane proteins that will help contribute to the body’s immune defense.
Proteins are nutrients, they provide 4kcal per gram consumed.
There are two families of protein-rich foods: animal foods and plant foods.
|Animal protein||Vegetable proteins|
Seafood and crustaceans
|Legumes: lentils, peas, soybeans|
Cereals: wheat, rice, corn
Oilseeds: avocado, almonds, walnuts
Proteins of animal origin are the richest in essential amino acids and are very well digested by the body. No plant food contains all the essential amino acids, so it is best to combine them in meals and vary them.
How to use protides?
Use of the protides
The protein requirements are the same as the protein requirements, they are set at 0.8g / kg / day for a healthy adult.
Food supplements in proteins
Protein supplements have been very successful in recent years and especially in sports. The animal or vegetable protein powders are designed to contain a maximum of proteins and promote the development of muscle mass. In other settings, protein supplements can be used to enrich the diet and fight against undernutrition. This is often the case in elderly people who are dependent, in the treatment of certain digestive diseases or certain cancers. In this respect, milk powder or specialized protein products (oral nutritional supplements for example) are used.
Adverse effects of proteins
Consequence of a deficiency in total proteins
In case of protein deficiency, there is increased fatigue and weight loss (loss of muscle mass), edema but also a decline in the immune system. A low total protein level can be explained by a lack of intake in the diet or a lack of absorption. Other pathologies can induce a decrease in plasma proteins, so it may be advisable to have a blood test at least once a year. The measurement of proteins in the blood is done by electrophoresis, we study the migration of proteins subjected to an electric field.
Consequences of excess protein
The consumption of foods rich in proteins can lead to kidney damage, we can see kidney failure in particular. On the other hand, the foods richest in proteins being of animal origin, one also notices a recrudescence of the colon cancer among the people consuming excess protein foods.
Protein interactions with various micronutrients
In general, to be synthesized and appropriately assimilated, the proteins require optimal intake of various micronutrients (copper, vitamins, etc.). A varied and balanced diet is always the best solution to promote the proper functioning of the body.
In chemistry, the term protein is used to designate amino acids and all their derivatives: oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins, etc. We often speak wrongly of “proteins” to designate proteins. In fact the protids are a large family grouping several molecules, including proteins.
Amino acids are the smallest unit constituting the proteins. Several amino acids grouped together by peptide bonds form a peptide. Finally, a set of several peptides consisting of a large number of amino acids form a protein.
The proteins were first discovered in 1835 by chemist G. J. Mulder. The name protein means “first” in Greek, in the “essential” sense.
It is only in the 20th century that the range of functions and forms adopted by proteins in the human organism (enzyme, tissue constituent, phenotype, etc.) will be discovered. The protids are at the origin of the evolution of Man and his genotype, an evolution still largely studied today.